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Comparative Study of the radioprotective effect of an extract of Pycnanthus angolensis against damage induced by x-rays

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By Achel, D. D. G.; Universidad De Murcia, Departmento De DermatologÍa, EstomatologÍa Y Radiologia Y Medicina Fisica (Thesis available at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Library).

Medicinal plants and plant products have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases, and remain a repository for obtaining new actives principles for clinical use.

This study aims at obtaining an extract from seeds of P. angolensis (PASE) suitable for use in cytoprotection and genoprotection assays in order establish its radioprotective capacity against chromosome damage induced by X rays, as well as compare it with other radioprotective antioxidants used in radiotherapy and different radiobiological models.

The genoprotective effect of PASE was studied by means of two micronucleus tests for antimutagenic activity in which the reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was evaluated in vitro using cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes and in vivo using
polychromatic erythrocytes from mouse bone marrow. The radioprotective effect of PASE was studied via the MTT cell viability test in normal human prostate PNT2 epithelial cells and B 16F 10 mouse melanoma cells. The test extract was administered both prior and after exposure to a range of X-ray doses.

PASE showed a significant genoprotective capacity (p<0.001) against X-rays with a protection factor of 25-35% and a dose reduction factor of 2.5-3.7, depending on the time of administration. Cell survival obtained with PASE after exposure to 10Gy of X-rays showed a protection factor of 86 %, thus eliminating 23 % of radiation-induced cell death in normal prostate epithelial cells (PNT2) (p<0.001) and a protection factor of 41% (p<0.00I) in the metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells after 48h of incubation and exposure to 10Gy of X-rays.

An extract with suitable properties for use in radiation protection assays has been accomplished. The said extract demonstrates a significant radioprotective capacity and higher comparable genoprotective property relative to other radioprotective agents used in radiation oncology and similar to other substances tested in different radiobiological models.

Publ. Year: 2013